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澳门会AG上海百乐门

来源: 中国新闻采编网     时间: 2020-03-29 22:15:02

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澳门会AG上海百乐门ByChenDaofu,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo25,2013(Total4274)sMonetaryEnvironmentHasExperiencedProfoundChangesCurrencyalwaysplaysitsroleinoseconomyisundergoingthecriticalrestructuringinatransitionalstage,,thecurrencysupplyandtherela,Chinashouldpayclose,theeffectivemonetaryregulationandcontroltools,especiallythepricecontroltools,shouldbedevelo,thereliableestimateforthechangedmonetaryenvironmentandtheadjustmenttotheformercontroltoolsandintensityshouldbemadetoensurethatthecurrencyspcedtheimport-orientedoneTheexchangeratesystemisanimportantfactorinfluencingChina,China,theincreaseofthefundsoutstandingforforeignexchangewasalorforeignexchangeandthebasiccurrencyincreasekeptover100%;theratioevenreached324%,Chinawithdrawsandfreezestheexcessivebasiccurrencyinthemarketbyusingcen%,Chinastarted,,accountingfor27%,easingandreducetheloan-depositratioofbanks,hencerestrictingbanks,banksareforcedtointensifytheexpsM2moneysupplyismainlyachievedthrou,thefundsoutstandingforforeignexchangeaccountedfor40%-70%andsuchpercentageofloansfluctuatedbetween60%and80%.Thesum-totalofthetwopercentageexceeded100%,Chinawithdrewsomemoneysupplyinthemarket,,,thetotal-sumofthetwopercentageswasaround100%,thenewlyincreasedcreditsaccountedforabout80%whiletheincreasedfundsoutstandingforforeignexchangesawasubstantialdecrease,leavingthesum-totalofthetwofactorslessthan100%,Chinahadtorelyonmoremoneysupplymeanssuchasreducingthescaleofcentralbankbills,increasingpublicmoneyissue,entdirectlytotheforeigntradeenterprises(smallandmedium-sizedcompaniesincluded).However,whentheamountofthefundsoutstandingforforeignexchangedecreased,themoneysupplyreturnedtobedrivenmainlybyalfinancingstructureAsthemarket-basedinterestrateandtheeasedmarketaccessfacilitatetheintegrationofdifferentmarkets,China%,arecordlow,%%,,nslikesmallloancompanies,guaranteecompanies,pawnshops,peer-to-peer(P2P)lendingcompanies,%%attheendof2012,thesum-totalofthepercentagesinbondandstockfinancingofsuchenterprisescontinuedtoincreasefrom14%%squantitativecontroltoolsbecomelesseffective,,Chinashouldmakethemarketmoresensitivet,moneysupplyandsocialfinancingwererelativelyeasedcomparedtotheGDPandinflationin2012,thesmallandmedium-sizedenterpriseswerech,largenumbersofenterpriseshavingtroubleincashflowcouldacquirehigh-costfundsthroughsociallendingchannels,,thelocalgovernmentandstate-ownedenterpriseswithhugefunddemsin2012,,,accountingfor23%.,,theloan-to-depositratio,andthecapitaladequacyratio,bankstendtohavealimitedcre,thefinancingdifficultyandthehighfinancin,relevantdepartmentsshouldmakejointeffortstolowerthelocalgovernmentandstate-ownedenterprisesoccupationfohinaseconomyhassteppedintoanewdevelopmentstage,whichcanbedemonstratedintheoutstandingstructural(aperiodic)%since2002,buttheratedroppedaround20%,theratiooflong-andmedium-termbankloansalsosufferedacontinuousdroptoabout18%bytheendof2012whilethenon-financialenterprisesevensawa,thecapitaldemandsinChineseinfrastructureandrealestatewilltakeonadownwardtendencyduetothecapitalrestraints,whichrequiresChinatoseekforneweffectivefunddemands....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

ByLiuShijin,XuWeiandLiuPeilin,,2011Sincereformandopeningup,ChinawillthepotentialeconomicgrowthtakeadownturnThesequestionsarenotonlyamatterofconcernathomeandabroad,buttheyalsoformanimportantbasisfortninChinaspotentialeconomicgrowthratewiththreedistinctbutmutuallycorroboratingmethodsandinlightofthehistoricalexperienceandpEconomiesandtheStylizedFactitShowsSincethebeginningofthe20thcentury,exceptforthosecountrieswithglobalcuttingageoftechnologyandatthefrontiersofgrowth,suchastheUSandtheUK,mostoftheothercountriesthatsucceededinjoiningthehigh-incoeentypifiedbythepost-WorldWarTwodevelopmentofJapan,SouthKorea,Chinachesabout11,000internationaldollars,markingthetransitionfromtherapidgrowthperiodtothemoderategrowthperiod,withafallof30-40%Japanenjoyedarapidgrowthduring27yearsafterWorldWarTwo,%,itspercapitaGDPwas11,434internationaldollars(thebenchmarkyearis19901,thesamehereinafter).Afterthat,thegrowthratetookadownturn,followedby18yearsofmoderategrowth,%%from1993to2008(Figure1).SouthKoreasannualGDPgrowthratewas8%from1946to1995andtookadownturnafter1995,whenitspercapitaGDPreached11,,%(Figure2).Taiwanseconomymaintainedarapidgrowthforoverthirtyyears,withanannualpercapitaGDPof9,,%,%fromtheaveragerateinthepreviousthreedecades(Figure3).WestGermany%from1947to1969,butittookadownturnafter1969,whenitspercapitaGDPwas10,/slowgrowthfrom1970to1979,%(Figure4).thedownturnintheeconomicgrowthrateDuringtherapidgrowthperiodbeforethedownturn,theproportionofi,however,thereisusuallyadeclineinthsindustrialaddedvalueinitsGDPfellto20%foratimejustaftertheendofWorldWarTwo,butitroserapidlyafterthatandpeakedat46%in1970;afterthat,itgraduallyfelltolessthan30%in2007(Figure5).TheproportionofSouthKoreasindustrialaddedvalueinitsGDPwaslessthan15%attheendofWorldWarTwo,%in1991;afterthatittookadownturnandfellto37%by2007(Figure6).TheproportionofTaiwansindustrialaddedvalueinitsGDPwaslessthan27%in1961,%by1986;thatwasfollowedbyagradualdeclineinboththeeconomicgrowthrateandtheproportionofindustry,%by1991(Figure7).TheproportionofformerWestGermanysindustrialaddedvalueinGDPpeakedat53%in1965,%in2008(Figure8).pideconomicgrowthisaccompaniedbyfasturbanization,,Japansurbanizationrateincreasedrapidly,%%in1973,%.After1973,urbanizationsloweddown,%from1973to2008,%(Figure5).SouthKorea%%in1995,%.After1995,urbanizationsloweddown,%from1995to2008,%(Figure6).Germanysurbanizationstartedfromthehighlevelofover50%,formerWestGermany%%,%.Therateremainedlargelystablesincethen,%in2008(Figure8).sPotentialEconomicGrowthMomentumIfChinaseconomicgrowthfollowsacoursesimilartothatoftheaforementionedsuccessfulcatch-upeconomies,istinctyetmutuallycorroboratingmethodsandinlightofthehistoricalexperienceand:TakeChinaasasingleentityandestimationsaremadewiththegeneraldataofthenationaleconomyandinlightoftheempiricalevidenceaboutthecommondownturninthegrowthrateofsuccessfulcatch-upeconomiessuchasJapan,SouthKorea,,Chinaus30years,basedontheUNsforecastofChinaspopulationgrowth,ChinaspercapitaGDPwillreach11,608internationaldollarsin2016,roughlyequivalenttothelevelatwhichacommondownturnoccurredinothersuccessfulcatch-upeconomies,inlightoftheempiricalevidenceregardingsucheconomies,ifChinaspotentialeconomicgrowthratefallsby30%orsofromtherapidgrowthperiod,spotentialeconomicgrowthrate,whichwilloccuratthepercapitaGDPlevelofabout11,%%duringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod(officialstatisticsofChina).

澳门会AG上海百乐门ByLiuShijin,XuWeiandLiuPeilin,,2011Sincereformandopeningup,ChinawillthepotentialeconomicgrowthtakeadownturnThesequestionsarenotonlyamatterofconcernathomeandabroad,buttheyalsoformanimportantbasisfortninChinaspotentialeconomicgrowthratewiththreedistinctbutmutuallycorroboratingmethodsandinlightofthehistoricalexperienceandpEconomiesandtheStylizedFactitShowsSincethebeginningofthe20thcentury,exceptforthosecountrieswithglobalcuttingageoftechnologyandatthefrontiersofgrowth,suchastheUSandtheUK,mostoftheothercountriesthatsucceededinjoiningthehigh-incoeentypifiedbythepost-WorldWarTwodevelopmentofJapan,SouthKorea,Chinachesabout11,000internationaldollars,markingthetransitionfromtherapidgrowthperiodtothemoderategrowthperiod,withafallof30-40%Japanenjoyedarapidgrowthduring27yearsafterWorldWarTwo,%,itspercapitaGDPwas11,434internationaldollars(thebenchmarkyearis19901,thesamehereinafter).Afterthat,thegrowthratetookadownturn,followedby18yearsofmoderategrowth,%%from1993to2008(Figure1).SouthKoreasannualGDPgrowthratewas8%from1946to1995andtookadownturnafter1995,whenitspercapitaGDPreached11,,%(Figure2).Taiwanseconomymaintainedarapidgrowthforoverthirtyyears,withanannualpercapitaGDPof9,,%,%fromtheaveragerateinthepreviousthreedecades(Figure3).WestGermany%from1947to1969,butittookadownturnafter1969,whenitspercapitaGDPwas10,/slowgrowthfrom1970to1979,%(Figure4).thedownturnintheeconomicgrowthrateDuringtherapidgrowthperiodbeforethedownturn,theproportionofi,however,thereisusuallyadeclineinthsindustrialaddedvalueinitsGDPfellto20%foratimejustaftertheendofWorldWarTwo,butitroserapidlyafterthatandpeakedat46%in1970;afterthat,itgraduallyfelltolessthan30%in2007(Figure5).TheproportionofSouthKoreasindustrialaddedvalueinitsGDPwaslessthan15%attheendofWorldWarTwo,%in1991;afterthatittookadownturnandfellto37%by2007(Figure6).TheproportionofTaiwansindustrialaddedvalueinitsGDPwaslessthan27%in1961,%by1986;thatwasfollowedbyagradualdeclineinboththeeconomicgrowthrateandtheproportionofindustry,%by1991(Figure7).TheproportionofformerWestGermanysindustrialaddedvalueinGDPpeakedat53%in1965,%in2008(Figure8).pideconomicgrowthisaccompaniedbyfasturbanization,,Japansurbanizationrateincreasedrapidly,%%in1973,%.After1973,urbanizationsloweddown,%from1973to2008,%(Figure5).SouthKorea%%in1995,%.After1995,urbanizationsloweddown,%from1995to2008,%(Figure6).Germanysurbanizationstartedfromthehighlevelofover50%,formerWestGermany%%,%.Therateremainedlargelystablesincethen,%in2008(Figure8).sPotentialEconomicGrowthMomentumIfChinaseconomicgrowthfollowsacoursesimilartothatoftheaforementionedsuccessfulcatch-upeconomies,istinctyetmutuallycorroboratingmethodsandinlightofthehistoricalexperienceand:TakeChinaasasingleentityandestimationsaremadewiththegeneraldataofthenationaleconomyandinlightoftheempiricalevidenceaboutthecommondownturninthegrowthrateofsuccessfulcatch-upeconomiessuchasJapan,SouthKorea,,Chinaus30years,basedontheUNsforecastofChinaspopulationgrowth,ChinaspercapitaGDPwillreach11,608internationaldollarsin2016,roughlyequivalenttothelevelatwhichacommondownturnoccurredinothersuccessfulcatch-upeconomies,inlightoftheempiricalevidenceregardingsucheconomies,ifChinaspotentialeconomicgrowthratefallsby30%orsofromtherapidgrowthperiod,spotentialeconomicgrowthrate,whichwilloccuratthepercapitaGDPlevelofabout11,%%duringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod(officialstatisticsofChina).

ByLiuYong,DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo14,2013(Total4263)In2011,regionaleconomicgrowthdeclinedatlargeinChina,andinmostregionstheecono,economiesofvariousprovinces,%(aweightedaverageasperGRP),();GRPofvariousprovinces,();thepercapitaGRPofvariousprovinces,regionsandmunicipalitiescametoatotalof38,777yuan(being3,680yuanhigherthanthenationalstatistics).FollowingistheanalysisofChinasregionaleconomicdevelopmentpattern,,anoverviewofregionaleconomicdevelopmentinChinaindicatedthateconomicgrowthinChinascentralandwesternregionswasfasterthanthatintheeasternregion,thefocusofregionaleconomicgrowthandaggregatemovedwestwardcontinuously,therelativeregionalgapcontinuedtoshrinka,becosregionaleconomicgrowthwascharacterizedbythefactthateconomicgrowthwasfasterincentralandwesternregions,butslowerintheeasternregionsofChinawhilethefarwesternregion,themiddleandupperreachesoftheYangtzeRiverandTianjinwitnessedthefastestgrowthByregion,economicgrowthofChinascentralandwesternregionssurpassedthatofeastChinain5yearsrunningby2011andthesurpassinggrowthcontinuedtoenlarge,;thefarwesternregionsawafastergrowththanthegrandcentralregion,formingagainasequencingoffarwesternregion,grandcentralregionandneweasternregion,andthegroactonChinaseasternregion,andthatthecentralgovernmentsintensifyingin"7+1"integratedeconomicareasthatregionswhereeconomicgrowthisfasterthantheaverageofallprovincesandregionsareinturnthemiddleandupperreachesoftheYangtzeRiver,thefarwesternregion,themiddleandupperreachesofthePearlRiver,thenortheasternregionandthemiddleandupperreachesoftheYellowRiverand,regionswhereeconomicgrowthisslowerthantheaverageofallprovincesandregionsareinturnthecoastalareasofeastChina,forChinaandproducedahugeimpactonChina,amongothers,havebeenworsthitbythecrisis(coastalareasofsoutheastChinawereworsthitin2008).(SeeTable1).Table1 PatternandChangeoftheMacroeconomicandIntegratedEconomicAreasduring2002~2011

澳门会AG上海百乐门BySunZhiyan,ResearchTeamon"PromotingReforminKeyAreasofEconomicSystem",DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo125,2013(Total4374)Sincereformandopeningup,whilestimulatinglocalgovernmentstodeveloptheireconomies,theinter-governmentrelations,whichhavebeenformedonthebasisofseparationofpowers,havewitnessedanintensifiedpursuitofinterestsbetweenthecentralgovernmentandthelocalgovernmentsaswellasamonglocalgovernments,whichhavetriggeredoffanarrayofproblems,suchastheviciouscompetitionamonglocalgovernments,thedifficultyinbringingcentralgovernmentpoliciesintoeffect,marketblockade,barriersbetweendifferentdepartmentsandregionsandlowadministrativeefficiency,whicharebecomingmajorfac,itisimperativetoexpeditetherelatedreformsinoptimizingtherelationsbetweengovernmentpowersandresponsibilitiesandtoreinforcethestandaibilitiesinChinaTheallocationofpowersandresponsibilitiesamongthegovernmentsreferstohowgovernmentsatalllevelsallocateandexercisediffvernance,vernmentsatalllevels,,smodernizationprocess,tyisnotadheredtoandiftheCentralGovernmentfailstoeffectivelyrestrainlocalgovernmentsfromproperlyexercisingpublicpowers,theregionalcontradictionsmightbecomesharpenedandtheuniformmarketmightbedisrupted,whichwillendangernationalunity..Hence,inthenewerawhenChinasinter-governmentpower-responsibilityrelationsarebeingoptimized,weshouldfirstlyadheretotheprincipleofpoliticalunity,safeguardtheauthorityoftheCentralGovern,theprin,withthedeep-goingimplementationofthescientificapproachondevelopment,governmentsatalllevels,localgovernmentsexorbitantpursuitofeconomicgrowthhasnotyetbeenturnedaroundinaneffectiveway,andtheimbalancebetwe,weshouldstilllaystressontheprincipleof"balancingthedevelopmentguidanceandprovisionofpublicservices".Thatistosay,ineconomicdevelopmentactivities,localgovernmentsshouldturnfrom"directmanagement"to"indirectgovernancethroughregulations",andfrom"directparticipation"to"scientificguidanceandoverallplanning".Localgovernmentsshouldputmorepublicresourcesintosocialmanagementandpublicservicesectors,paymoreattentiontosocialjustice,offermoresuperiorservicestocitizens,andconstantlyimprovetheirabilitytorespondtocitizensseconomicdevelopmentmodeandsocialtransformation,anditconstitutesanindispensablebasisforconstructingservice-orientedgovernmentsaimedatmeetingpeople,theprincipleofuticles(services)andthedistributionfeatures,possibleeffortsshouldbemadetoputthescopeofresponsibilitiesundertakenbythegovernmentsandthescopeofbenefitforpublicproducts(services)providedbythegovernmentsinconsistencywitht,suchasfirefightingandmunicipalfacilitiesinaregion,eaterspatialspillover,,,bigorsmall,is,riouslevelsisinesstmechanismandprovisionofpublicservices,thelowesttransactio(services)providedcansatisfythelowestpaymentcostandbringaboutthemaximumbenefit,thesepublicarticles(services)shouldbeprovidedasmuchaspossiblebylocalgovernmentsatlowerlevels,whichfavor,theCentralGovernmentandlocalgovernmentsshouldoptimizetheirrelationsrelatedinnlinewiththeobjectiverequirementsforeconomicandsocialtransformationanddevelopment,weshouldtaketherationalizationofresponsibilitiesinfinancialexpenditurebetweentheCentralGovernmentandlocalgovernmentsasastartingpoint,andtheestablishmentofstandardizedgovernmentfiscalequilibriumsystemasaguaranteeand,meanwhile,weshouldexpeditethestantheCentralGovernmentandLocalGovernmentsintheNewEraTheoptimizationandreadjustmentofthepowerandresponsibilityrelationsbetweenthecentralgovernmentandlocalgovernmentsisasystematicengineeringthatrelatestothesupportingreformsofthepoliticalsystem,administrativemanagementsystemandtheeconomicmanagemenransformationandthenationaleconomicdevelopmentstrategy,theprioritytasksshouldbehighlightedinthreeaspectsoftheoptimizationandreadjustmentoftherelationsbetweenthecentralgovernmentandlocalgovernments:Firstly,weshouldreformtheregionalanddepartmentalnalfunctions,makingitdifficulttoimprovetheadministrativeefficiency,butitalsoleads,breakoffthechainsofvestedinterestsformedverticallywithfunctionaldepartmentsastheprincipalpart,andthehorizontalregionalseparationaswell,facilitatethesubstantivechangeofgovernmentfunctions,and,weshouldclarifythepowersancandsocialdevelopment,weshouldsortoutprioritiesandadvancebystagesthein-depthclarificationofthepowersandresponsibilitiesofgovernmentsatalllevelsintermsofeconomicadjustment,publicservices,,prohibittherentseekingforpowersandvirtualizingofresponsibilitiesstrictlyaccordingtolaw,soastoimprovethee,weshouldstrengthenthestandardizedandsystematizedconstructionofthepowerandresponson,weshouldmaintaintheauthorityofthecentralgovernmentandshouldaswellprovideanecessarysystemspaceforlocalgovernmentsovernanceandprovisionofpublicservicesandshouldaswelleffectivelystandardizeandrestrainthebehaviorsofthelocalglityallocationunderarigorouslawsystemframeworktoavoidthenon-systematiccompetitionamonggovernmentsindifferentregionsandatvariouslevels,torealizetheimpartialityinallocatingpublicresourcesamongdifferentgovernments,andtoputanendtothedisorderlycompetition,theunfaircompetitionandthepolicycompetitionsoastoadvancethesubstantivechangeofgovernmentfunctions.

ByXiaBinChenDaofu,ResearchInstituteofFinanceofDRCResearchReportNo159,yRegimeThemonetaryperformanceofanationisfinallydeterminedbyfourexternalfinancialvariablesincludingmonetarypolicy,financialsupervision,microscopicbehaviorandexchangerate,gerateregimean,thechoiceofexchangeraarystabilityregime,sothattheexchangerateofonecurrencyagainstanotherforeigncudevelopment,,thecurrencyhaditsintrinsicvalueandtheparvalueofexchangepossessedendogenousstability,soobviouslytheexchangerateregimewasendogenousfixedexchangerateregi,owingtothegoldandforeignexchangecontrolimposedbyvariouscountries,theinternationalgoldstandardfixedexchangerateregimecompletelycollapsed,andthentheinternat,cantherebeasolidfoundationandrelevantsignificanceforthefusionofmonsweighingofcurrencyvaluestability,fullemploymentandthegoalofbalanceofpaymentsequilibrium,:RetrospectionandRuminationbyRobertMundellconcludesthroughdetailedanalysisthatpolicyoptionsaremadenotjustthroughsimplychoosingthefixedexchangerateregimeorfloatingexchangerateregime,,variouscountrieshavedifferenttransmittingregimesineconomiccycles,andthusthedegreesof,underfixedexchangerateregime,thestabilityofcurrencyisachievedbyvirtueofcurrencyvaluestability(ingoldstandardregime,thepriceofgold)ofkeycurrencies(suchasinternationalmajorreservecurrencies)ofaresponsiblemajoreconomy;whileunderfloatingexchangerateregime,thestabilityofcurrencyisachievedbyvirtueofotherregimesincludingmonetarystandard(byMiltonFriedman),commoditystandard(byThomasAttwood,IrvingFisherorFrankGraeme)andsalarystandard(byRobertMundell)().:ChoiceintheStrategicTransitionalPeriodInthecontextofinternationalmonetaryregime,thecurre,Euro,poundandyenasmajorreserveandsettlementcurrencies,exchangeratesbetweenmajorcurrenciesfloatingfreelyandfreechoicesofreservecurrency,exchangera,itcanbeexpectedthatinthenext10,20oreven30years,therewillbenofundamentalchangesinthebasicpatternof“onekeycurrencyandmultiplesecondarycurrencies”(accountingforabout65%oftheworldscurrentreservecurrencies)isrelativelyweakening,andthestrengthofsecondarycurrenciesincludingEuro,,,thecontestfordominanceintheintratesofvariouscountriesshallstillbehardtoachieve,exchangeratesbetweentheworldsmajorcurrenciesshallbemoreturbulent,sconstantlydevelopingeconomyandfinance,Chinaisamajoreconomywithalargepopulation,andhas,itseconomystillhasgreatpot,andthemarket-o,thereisanurgentneedforfurtherparticipationinthefinancialglobalizationforthesustainableeconomicdevelopmentofChina;ontheotherhand,"pathdependence"andthecomplexrealitydeterminesthatintheglobalenvironmentofincreasingeconomicuncertainties,attentionshallbepaidtothesecurityofstatefinanceandeconomywithfurtherparticipationinthefinancialglobalization,,simplychoosingthestrictfixedexchangerateofsinglecurrencypegorselectingafullyfloatingexchangerate(polarsolution),,itisntsuitableforChinatocarryoutthestrictfixedexchangerateregime,norisChinaqualifiedtoactasthekeyintern,

vironmentalsustainability,butpolitical,social,,theInternationalCommissionontheMeasurementofEconomicPerformanceandSocialProgressarguedthatoneofthereasonsthatGDPwasnotingeneralagoodmeasurewasthatGDPmetricsdidnotincludeassessmentsofsustainability:GDPcouldappeartobebothstrongandgrowing,,Iwanttofocusononeaspectofsustainability:the"social"ronmentalrisks,(andIwillarguerelated)risks:highlevelsofinequality,andespeciallyinequalityofopportunity,andalackoftrustinestablishedinstitutions,,—includingimplicationsforsocialandpoliticalstability—tappreciatetheimportanceoftrustinmakingamoderneconomyfunction;butintheabsenceoftrust,onepartywillcheatanother;eachpartywillgotogreatlengthstoinsurethatitwontorcantbecheated,orthatifitischeated,,wherevaluablesocietalresourcesaredevotedtodisputeresolution,ratherthantowealthcreation—,alargebodyofeconomicliteraturehasdevelopedfocusingontheimportanceoftrustandasenseoffairnessinsociety,,Ifirstdiscussinequality,then"trust"beforeturningtothepoliciesthatcanhelpChinamanagebothrisks.Ⅰ.InequalityOneofthegreatachievementsofChinaduringthepastthirdofacenturyhasbeenthereductioninp,,,ChinasGinicoefficient,astandardmeasureofinequality,rivalsthatoftheUS—,,thereisoftenamarkedincreaseininequality,assomepartsoftheeconomytake-offbeforeothers,inthepasthalfcentury,manydevelopingcountriesshowednotonlythatgrowthinearlystagesneednotbeaccompaniedbygreaterinequality,(Thisisevenmoresoifweusealternative,andarguablybetter,measuresofeconomicperformance,suchastheincomeofthemedianhousehold.)Somehavesimilarlyattemptedtojustifythehighlevelofinequalitybyassertingthatgrowinginequalityisaglobalphenomenon,,bothadvancedindustrialeconomiesandemergingeconomies,whichhavebuckedthetrend;inwhichinequalityisnotincreasing;:itispoliticsandpolicieswhichhaveshapedthelawsofeconomics,insomecasestoproducesocietieswithhighlevelsofequalityandequalityofopportunityandabroadsenseoffairness;andinothercases,,inforginga"marketeconomywithsocialistcharacteristics"ensurethatitspoliciesareoftheformerkind,"ensuringthatthemarkethasadecisiveroleinallocatingresources..."Butatthesametime,ittalkedabout"guaranteeingandimprovingthepeopleslivelihood...andstimulatingsocialfairnessandjustice,"guaranteeingthat"societyisbothfullofvitality,aswellasharmoniousandorderly."Marketeconomiesareoftenassociatedwithhighlevelsofinequalityandinequalityofopportunity,andinrecentdecadestheproblemsposedbytheseinequitieshavebecomemarkedlyworse,somuchsothatwhileGDP(asconventionallymeasured)hasbeengoingupinmostWesterncountries,(Wenote,however,thattheremaybelongperiodsforwhi,adjustedforinflation,GDPpercapitainFrance,Greece,Italy,Spain,andUKareallbelowthelevelattainedbeforethecrisis,morethanahalfdecadeago,insomecases,suchasGreece,,combinedwithreductionsinincome,,inthis,animportantlesson,alreadynoted:socialandeconomicrisksareintertwined.)Ifthisisthecase,doesntthemovetowardsmakingthemarketmoredecisivenecessarilyleadtogreatersocialrisksTheanswerisno,andtheReportofthe:"thecoreissuesaredealingwiththerelationshipbetweenthegovernmentandthemarket"Marketforces,evenwhentheyworkwellinthemannerthattheyaresupposedto,donotnecessarilyleadtoadistributionofincomeandwealththatisinanywayconsonantwithsocialharmony;quitethecontrary—asIhavenoted,theyoftencanle,health,,,andthesegenera,(saythemedian,whethermeasuredmorenarrowlybyincome,orevenmoreso,whenmeasuredmorebroadly,sHumanDevelopmentIndex,HDI,whichtakesintoaccountnotonlyincome,buthealthandeducation)performfarbetterthan,say,:thehigherlevelsofopportunityandthebettersystemsofsocialprotection(includingstrongersafetynets)arepartofthereasonforthesecountriesChinesecharacteristics,;therightoneswouldmitigatethemandensurethattheobjectivessetforthinthe3rdPlenumwouldbeachieved.澳门会AG上海百乐门




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